October 5 - 8, 2014
Steve''s grown paw paw
Even 1% of Americans do not know about paw paw. There are not so many people who know about paw paw, such as the fact that they bear the biggest fruit among American native fruit trees, that they can eat fruit, or the fact that red flowers bloom before the leaf like a magnolia. Paw paw trees grow from the southern US state of Louisiana along to the north along the Mississippi River, north to the Great Lakes and south of Canada, and are largely inhabited in the glacier area. By the end of the 1900s, however, Paw paw was thought to be just a useless tree in the woods, rather than a fruit. The obstacles are also lack of storage(keeping fresh) and toxicity, though they are minimal. Neal Peterson introduced many new varieties, participated in breeding at Kentucky State University. Dr. Brannan conducted nutritional research at Ohio University in Athens, and now there is a lot of scientific data available, which is expanding its use. In the northern United States, Athens, Ohio, the center of paw paw culture production, the manias focus on introducing the fruit tree over the world every year by hosting the Paw paw Festival.
<University of Ohio in Athens>
The number of enrolled students is 20,000. Professor, Dr. Brannan, of Food and Nutrition guided me to his lab.
A student making a pizza. If putting paw paw skin in a pizza, it is said that the toxicity will be enriched. (It can cause vomiting by eating too much paw paw skin.)
High Pressure Process
Discoloration Study of paw paw Pulp
Frozen NC-1 pulp
Professor of Food and Nutrition, Dr. Brannan
paw paw cultivars
Resources from Dr. Brannan
I discussed the theme of setting up a tour program for Korean paw paw growers in accordance with Dr. Brannan and attending 2015’ Paw paw Festival. They will also visit Ohio University's paw paw Laboratory and Jerry Lehman’s paw paw Farm.
<Visiting to Jerry Lehman’s Farm>
Jerry Lehman has focused on fostering large-scale species through cross-breeding in the past 14 years. He has been exhibiting Maria's Joy (166-13), 275-48 (Lehman's Delight) and 250-39 He won the 1st place at the paw paw Festival Fellowship category. His trees were more than 10-12 years old. He makes hisr own compost.
Mr. Jerry Lehman
There are 10 acres of artificial lakes in 93 acres of land.
Jerry Lehman's computer resources
<Visiting Dr. Ron Powell's Farm>
Dr. Ron Powell has the largest number of 100 paw paw varieties collected throughout the country, and he has the most 6-7 year old trees. He uses chemical fertilizers. The hilly area southwest of Ohio
6-7 year old paw paw trees
<Prevention of cold damage of paw paw>
In the case of sloping land, the warm air rises upwards and the cold air downwards, making it more warmer than the valleys, with a temperature difference of more than 5 degrees. It directly affects the cold weather of early flowering time.
<Direct sunlight blocking of paw paw>
One-year-old paw paw tree planted in a paddy field should cut off direct sunlight, but it was noticeable that a 1-gallon milk bottle was cut and put. The more important thing to do when planting seeds in the field is not the concern of the cold damage, but the strong sunlight. If you have a semi-transparent cylindrical tube, you can take advantage of anything.
There is no problem in direct sunlight if the tree grows over the tube height.
<Pollination of Paw paw>
Other insects also help, but most depend on flies. Bee does not pay much attention to paw paw flowers. It is not different to have pollinators because there are enough flies in the US or Korea unless it is a desert climate, but most importantly, more than two varieties are needed for crossbreeding. Paw paw has a pistil and stamen. In most cases, it has to be mated with other varieties to bear fruit, which is why the paw paw trees in the forest are not able to bear fruit.
According to Lehman's experiment, only 3% of natural pollination and 5% of artificial pollination are good for fruiting. Mr. Lehman says that the choice of the pollinator is the most important to get a big fruit, and he mostly pollinate them by hands. On the other hand, Mr. Powell leaves it intact. Natural pollinating can often produce great fruit, and among wild paw paw trees there are often large fruits.
The relatively small fruit contains 3-4 seeds, and the very large fruit contains 10-15 seeds, the middle being the best, and the seed size and fruit size proportional to each other. In other words, the larger the seed, the greater the fruit.
Pruning is not so important, it is said to cut dead branches like ordinary trees (Jerry Lehmann) Mr. Jerry Lehman planted at intervals of less than 2 meters for breeding purposes and cuts off the poor ones.
<Preference and Commerciality of paw paw by Varieties>
In terms of fruit size, Shenandoah, Susquehanna, Summer Delight and some of the varieties that Jerry Lehman cultivates are by far the largest. Powell says. The bigger the fruit, the easier it will tend to change color, so it may be moderate in size, and he has analyzed the yield through statistics on the number of fruits in the tree and the weight. Dr. Powell recommends NC-1, Shenandoar, and Overlease, and Jerry Lehman recommends 250-39, 250-30, Maria's Joy (166-), and Lehman's Delight (275-48) . On the other hand, Davis poorly bear fruit, and Susquehanna fruit is cracked and problematic, and Rebecca's Gold has a sweetness but easily discolored.
The same breed as the 250-39 that won the Popo Festival. The fruit weighs 680 grams.
Contract with Mr. Jerry Lehman for Maria''''''''''''''''s Joy and Lehman''''''''''''''''s Delight exclusive rights in Korean soil. Both varieties have won 1st place with over 800 grams of fruit at the Ohio Paw paw Festival.
The scion woods of the two varieties will be supplied for the next three years.
<Selection of paw paw scion woods>
On October 7, when leaves fall in Jerry Lehman's farm in northwest Indiana, the first, second, and third years of paw paw branches are distinguished by color. The first year branches of the terminal bloom mainly next year, and its length is usually about 20 centimeters and the buds are about 10 flowers. Looking at the buds, those are plumped up already. The 2 years old branches are next to the first ones, and the time to bear fruit is slower than that of the first year. The trade of scion woods in the United States are based on one foot (about 30 cm), but in many cases, they are cut to about 12 cm.
Checking paw paw grafting with Mr. Jerry Lehman
One year old branch
<Selection of the soil>
Dr. Powell, Cliff in Tennessee , Steve grow paw paw trees on a sloping hill, and Jerry Lehmann on a wet and low flat. It is considered relatively strong in the water, but it is better to drain well. It is not recommendable on the soil with a lot of clay in Ohio.
<Toxicity and usage of Paw paw>
Plants belonging to the genus Annonaceae, along with sour-soap (graviola) and cherimoya, are toxic and do not report any fatal side effects such as chestnut trees. However, overdose of leaf, stem, and fruit bark causes vomiting. This is due to the presence of Asimicin and Bullaticin in the porcine component and is concentrated by heating or drying. An animal such as a deer does not eat a leaf or stalks well, which would be a learning effect that experienced side effects once. It is not yet in clinical trials. It is not taken as a medicinal product, but Pawpaw-cell is sold as a health supplement. The label does not mention the anticancer effect, but it is said to kill "abnormal cells". In the United States, It is known paw paw authoritative researcher is Dr. Mcglaughim.
Analysis of two toxins mainly in paw paw stem, and fruit skin
How will Korean farmers create profits?
In the past few years, the number of paw apw trees planted in Korea is estimated to reach one million. Even if a significant number of them are annihilated, more than 500,000 will be growing, and more demand is expected in 2015. It is far from reaching saturation, but the rapid spread of paw paw species seems to be more rapid than that of blue berries or Aronia.
Is there a market to consume so many paw paw fruits in the future? Is it time for the whole people to eat all at once the fruits of the paw paw which is 20 to 40 kilos in one tree when it becomes a saggy tree and the storage capacity is very low? Since there are so many wild paw paw trees in the United States, more than 99.99% of the paw paw fruits are abandoned, and the commercial use is that they are bought or frozen by locals, or put into beer. Compared to consumption the production will much over the needs. Of cause people will use the paw paw fruits in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, beverages, health foods, confectionery and baking, ice cream, and tea industry. University of Ohio, Dr. Brannan, in nutritional studies and Dr. Jerry McGlaughim is a pharmacologist and should be preceded by academic research. How do you prevent the side effects of paw paw over supplied from being poured into market without basic research like Korea now? This explosive paw paw cultivation growth trend is like a train that does not know the end station.
Flea removal shampoo
Worldwide, there are Australia, Japan, Germany, Romania, and Italy, which have cultivated paw paw trees. Last year, I sent 5 kilos of the seeds to China through Hong Kong and have been supplying seeds to Australia for many years. The biggest consumer of pecan nuts is Chinese, and China is expected to produce a significant amount of pecan in China in the next decade. Before that, let us assume for instance that we make paw paw ice cream and sell it at home and abroad. Are we sure that we are setting the right direction. Can we export excellent varieties grown in Korea to other countries?
Only those who supply new varieties will earn money, and growers will have to cut the trees because they do not have a market.
In the US, the use of paw paw is as follows: 1. Eating raw and eating 2. Freezing and eating 3. Smoothing 4. Feeding in bread 5. Feeding in beer 6. Making soaps and shampoos 7. Shampooing for pet worms
It seems that they don’t produce tea yet. Other seed sales and scion woods sales.
Fruit harvester for seed collection
In fact, there was no paw paw fruits in Farmer's Market in Columbus, the main city of Ohio. There are a couple of places where I could shop for paw paw beer in a college bar in Athens where the Ohio Paw Paw Festival is being held.
To overcome the reality of these American origins,
- Academic research should be preceded
- Registration of medicines through clinical trials should be done first.
- Product development for mass consumption is needed.
- We should make good use of the early-harvesting species in July and the late-harvesting species in mid-October.
- Ensure varieties with pink or white flowers and find ways to utilize them as landscape gardeners.
- Develop new varieties.
- Hosting regional Paw paw Festival
Paw paw seeds are available September - October, whole sale only 10 kgs - 1,000 kgs. 10 kgs for U$1,000